water lily to illustrate bladder support devices

Bladder support devices to reduce stress urinary incontinence: how do they work?

Add extra support to your bladder from the inside

Strengthening your pelvic floor is still first prize for bladder leakage problems.  But what if you cannot create enough strength and support for the bladder with your pelvic floor muscles alone? You may benefit from one of the modern devices that tries to give some reinforcement to the bladder neck and bladder tube.

These are devices that you can buy on the internet and then insert and remove yourself.  They are designed to be worn all day but not all the time

Available at the moment are , Contam, Contiform and Uresta.  They vary in price chiefly relative to how many times they can be re-used.  Contiform is available on prescription.

Who do they suit?

If pelvic floor exercises, improving your core, adjusting your exercise regime and better bladder management have not been enough to resolve your bladder leakage then these devices may offer an alternative to surgery. They have a similar mechanism of action  (mechanical support of the urethra) to the TVT and colposuspension procedures.

These work particularly well in certain situations.  If you or your physiotherapist feel that the bladder has dropped only a little bit (prolapse of the anterior wall/cystocele) but that everything else inside (particularly the uterus) is still well supported. If you feel you have created a good layer of muscles through exercise but still need a bit more support when you are trying to be active.

How does an internal bladder support reduce urinary leakage?

These devices work by providing more support for the bladder neck.  When you move fast (jogging, playing tennis) or  there is an increase in abdominal pressure (coughing, sneezing, zumba, aerobics) the pelvic floor muscle is supposed to support the bladder neck so that there is no leakage.  However, if the muscles are weakened and/or untoned that support can be lost. 

hose lying on grass and path
Would it be easier to stop the water by standing on the hose on the grass or on the path?

Are a visual person?   Imagine a running hose pipe, lying on  soft grass.  When you lay your foot on the pipe you may slow the flow of water but you may not be able to stop it completely.  However, if that under surface is firmer, because you have laid your hosepipe on your garden path (aka a good pelvic floor, and/or a device in position) when you press down on the hosepipe the water flow stops.

What type of urinary leakage will they help?

These devices are best for small leaks associated with movement. Or leaks when the bladder is under pressure from coughing, sneezing or laughing (stress urinary incontinence).

They create a mechanical uplift to support the bladder neck the way the pelvic floor is supposed to do. 

They can’t help with urgency or irritable bladder

What these devices can’t do is change symptoms like urgency.  If your bladder is irritated by caffeine, being too full, or you have an overactive bladder, you won’t see any improvement using one of these.  Pelvic floor exercises DO help these symptoms because the pelvic floor contracting activates neurological messages which calm the bladder down.  Unfortunately these devices can’t do that. 

If urgency or frequency symptoms are your bother – then rather practice “endurance/holding” pelvic floor exercises (see more in the Pelvic Floor School) and have a read of the article “How much should you drink in day and when should you have a wee?” for more impact on these problems.

a glass how much should you drink in a day

Can I leave it in to wee?  What about during my period?

Yes, they are all designed to be left in when you have a wee.  The pressure of the bladder squeezing is enough to push the urine past the supported area when you need to.

You could still use the Contiform pessary when you had a period (as the menstrual fluid can flow through it) but you couldn’t use a tampon at the same time.  The other designs (Contam, Uresta) act as a block but are not absorbant like a tampon, so shouldn’t be used during your period.

Note: The term pessary can be confusing

Because these devices to reduce bladder leakage sit inside the vagina they are termed a “pessary” but they should not be confused with a  traditonal pessary used for supporting Pelvic Organ Prolapse (POP).

A guide to pessary devices to reduce stress urinary incontinence

Each company markets their own product and may use more than one distributor.  Here is my personal “quick guide” to what’s out there at the moment, apologies if it has already changed again by the time you read this!  Please do let me know if I have missed something out, you find a new supplier, have comments or you would like to share your experiences with other readers?:

Contrelle Activgard

picture of Contrelle Activgard

   

(single use only)  currently unavailable in UK 

Contam Pessary

picture of contam

 

reusable for a week

£26.99 for a starter set from www.stressnomore.com  * use promotion code SUPPORTEDMUMS at checkout for a 15% discount

These are quite new on the market.  There are no clinical trials listed.

Contam is a brand offering a variety of shapes and sizes of washable resuseable (for a week) vaginal pessaries. It is the tampon shaped ones that are suitable for supporting the bladder neck (and can also be used to support the uterus). The cube shaped ones are for going much further back in the vagina to support a more severe uterus prolapse.

It is suggested that you position them differently according to the problem: For incontinence: insert the pessary deep into your vagina, then pull it back slightly so that it’s within reach of your fingers

Contam pessaries can be used for up to a week by washing them after each removal. The manufacturers suggest that to clean your pessary, either boil it for 3-10 minutes or place it into the washing machine at 60 degrees. Then either leave it to dry naturally or store it in a bowl of water ready for the next insertion.

Though these are only reusable a few times and a more expensive option than pads, they would suits a mums who is generally not experiencing day to day stress incontinence but knows when she is going to leak.  For example if you do a longer run, or go to a Zumba class.  You might only use them only once or twice a week. You can put one of these in before they go and not need to worry with other protection (or maybe use with a pair of Pretty Clever Pants “just in case”).  

Contiform

picture of Contiform

use up to 30 times

£79.99 starter pack of 3 www.stressnomore.co.uk    *use SUPPORTEDMUMS for 15% discount

Also available on NHS prescription from your GP [starter pack: NHS order code   SKU184 , PIP code 375-5808 ]

The principle of the Contiform and its position in the vagina is to create uplift and support for the neck of the bladder.  These are re-usable up to 30 times so if you felt you needed support daily rather than ad hoc this is likely a more economical option in the longer term.

The Contiform Pessary looks like a plastic hollow tampon.    The smaller circle supports the bladder tube (the urethra), the larger surface lies against the floor of the vagina, giving support to the bowel wall.  They are made of a firm but flexible non-latex plastic and can be reused, with the guarantee  up to 30 times (there is a “slit” that develops with wear to show you when the device needs changing),  longer if not worn all day. There is an optional ribbon to help with removal.

You can buy these online or they are now available on NHS prescription.  You would need to tell  your GP about your symptoms, and ask him to prescribe a starter pack for you.  While you are there ask for a referral to specialist physiotherapy too if you haven’t already got your own pelvic floor coach(!).  Especially if using a Contiform works for you – it suggests that a stronger pelvic floor could do this job naturally for you too!

This video available on the Pioneer Medical (UK distributors) facebook page explains well.

Uresta

picture of uresta

resuable for a year

£179 (+VAT ) + £8 P&P  for a starter kit containing 3 sizes  from iMEDicare on 01923 237795 or via uresta.uk

Uresta, designed and manufactured in Canada, joins this family of internal support devices with the unique selling point that it is fully reuseable with the manufacturers suggesting replacement after one year.

So if you have had good success with one of the devices above this would be a natural progression to a potentially more environmentally friendly and overall less expensive option.

A clinical trial of 32 women found that of those still using it at 2 weeks (21 women out of the original 32), 76% of them (16) were still using it at their 12 month visit.   Farrell SA, Baydock S, Amir B, et al.  Effectiveness of a new self-positioning pessary for the management of urinary incontinence in women.  Am J  Obst  Gynaecol 2007:196:474e.1-474.e8

There is a helpful video from their website below. If you are worried about the high initial cost Uresta offer a full money back guarantee if the product doesn’t work for you and also give good advice about how to find the right size for you.

this video is from uresta.co.uk

Beware misleading marketing

Some of the marketing blurbs list “strengthen your pelvic floor” as a benefit of using their pessary device.  This is only true in the loosest meaning – while they are in place, by artificially re-inforcing the vagina wall  I suppose you could claim that is “strengthening” the pelvic floor action – but they are in no way making any change to the muscle.  Only exercise can change the composition and activity of the muscles or surgery the non-muscular elements.  When you take the device out the structural situation remains the same.   However, these devices definitely offer an alternative to surgery with a similar mechanism of action, mechanical suppport of the urethra to the TVT and colposuspension procedures.

Living life to the full

To conclude – I would suggest that these devices are part of your package of things you are doing/using to change the way that bladder leakage limits your lifestyle with your goal to cure your leakage problem rather than simply manage it, if possible.

However, if you are feeling more confident to exercise because you are not worrying about leaking,  then this will be a Good Thing for your overall health, wellbeing and mood.   

Do contact your local specialist physiotherapist to help support you with finding the right products, exercises and sports for your needs

Have you tried an internal bladder support device? What did you think? Any tips for other mums?

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